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Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Gestational DM (GDM) is outlined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or initial recognition throughout maternity . The definition applies whether or not hypoglycemic agent or solely diet modification is employed for treatment and whether or not or not the condition persists once maternity. It doesn't exclude the likelihood that unrecognized glucose intolerance could have antedated or begun concomitantly with the maternity. It is one of the most common problem during pregnancy.

When you eat, the digestive system breaks almost all the food down into a type of sugar, which is called glucose. This enters in to the blood stream. Your cells use the glucose as fuel with the help of insulin. Insulins are a kind of hormones made by the pancreas. When your body does not produce enough insulin or when the cells have problem in responding to the insulin, a large amount of glucose remains in the blood without moving in to the cells. It will not be converted to energy. The hormonal changes at the time of pregnancy make the cell less responsive to insulin. In most cases, it might not be a problem. But, when your pancreas became unable to sustain the demand of increased insulin during pregnancy, the level of blood glucose rise very high. This results in gestational diabetes mellitus.

The risk of this disease will increase day by day if it is left untreated. According to American diabetes Association, women who have the problems of obesity, glycosuria, a strong family history of diabetes etc are at high risk of getting gestational diabetes mellitus. It is important to undergo for a screening test for gestational diabetes mellitus at the first stage of pregnancy. They may have to undergo for glucose testing. Approximately seven-membered of all pregnancies are difficult by GDM, leading to over 200,000 cases annually. The prevalence could vary from one to 14 of all pregnancies, reckoning on the population studied and also the diagnostic tests utilized.

Exercises and healthy diet may be enough control the blood sugar level. But, sometimes, medications may be needed. Increased level of blood sugar can result in complications, both in the mother and in the child. It may lead to macrosomia in the baby, and epistomy or injuries in the vaginal area in the mother. High level blood sugar may lead to over growth of the baby, especially, in the upper body. This condition is known as macrosomia. In most of the cases, cesarean section may be needed to take out the over weighed baby.

In order to control the blood sugar level, you will have to:

  • Follow a well planned diet
  • Exercise
  • Take medication if required.

The first thing about your diet is, not to skip breakfast. You will have to avoid having sugary items like cookies, chocolates, candy and beverages. You should try to include food items that can balance fats and protein and provide minerals, vitamins and calories. Moderate exercises are suggested to women with gestational diabetes. They can even have 30 minutes of aerobic activity. Women who are unable to control the blood sugar level may sometimes have to take medications. Studies indicate that about 15% of pregnant woman with gestational diabetes may require medication. Nowadays people started having injections instead of oral medication.

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Dr.B.Kalpana

M.D(O&G) FNB(Reproductive Medicine), FICOG

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